Timur, or Tamerlane, 1336 – 1405 CE, . He too invoked the legacy of Genghis Khan – he too was, for example, said to have grasped a clot of blood when he was born.

Timur[3] (Persian: تیمورTemūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane[4] (Persian: تيمور لنگTemūr(-i) Lang, “Timur the Lame”), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty.[5] According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was “the product of an islamized and iranized society”, and not steppe nomadic.[6] He was defeated by Jats in Haridwar and Meerut.[7][8][9]

Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana (in modern-day Uzbekistan) on 9 April 1336, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across Western, South and Central Asia, the Caucasus and southern Russia, and emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, and the declining Delhi Sultanate.[10] From these conquests, he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death.

Timur was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, and his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Gunpowder Empires in the 16th and 17th centuries.[11][12]:1 Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan (died 1227). According to Beatrice Forbes Manz, “in his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights. He justified his Iranian, Mamluk, and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers.”[13] To legitimize his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the “Sword of Islam”, and patronized educational and religious institutions. He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime. Timur decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at the Siege of Smyrna, styling himself a ghazi.[14]:91 By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, and the Golden Horde, and even attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty in China.

Timur’s armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe,[14] sizable parts of which his campaigns laid to waste.[15] Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time.[16][17]

He was the grandfather of the Timurid sultan, astronomer and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, and the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia for over three centuries, from 1526 until 1857.[18][19] Timur is considered as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru.[14]:341–2

Ulugh Beg, central Asia start of the fifteenth-century. Great observatory in Samarkand. Catalog of just under 994 stars, later famous in Europe. Translated into Latin in Oxford in the seventeenth-century. A standard work of reference. Also the ruler of the timurid empire, at its height ruled Iran and Afghanistan, parts of India, and all of central Asia. The astronomer was the grandson of Tamerlane. The ruler of all Mongol areas and all the -stans. Two faces, looking to China and to Iran. Samarkand as a city on the silk road. He has a crater on the moon named after him. They had both married into the descendants of Genghis khan. They built mosques in Samarkand, Bukhara, Tashkent and heart. 1410 he was ruling Samarkand, and built an observatory. There was a lot of drinking at his court. Chinese visitors were aghast at the morals of the people at the timurid court in Samarkand. Women utter lewd words when conversing. They were still living in gers. The empire was not kept together for long. There was no working bureaucracy. The death of every ruler meant confusion and breakdown. There was no continuity. “When I arise the world will tremble.” Babur, as nephew of Ulugh Beg. Keep the cup as a shield against your sadness. He ruled only 2 years, and in 1449 he was toppled by his own son. He was beheaded. Babur buried him alongside Tamerlane. The Ottoman empire is arising in the west. Russia was expanding into central Asia. Uzbekistan uses this history for its nationalism. They have the black yade monument on their banknotes.

External links:

Edgar Allan Poe, “Tamerlane”

History of Philosophy, “Aftermath: History and Philosophy in the Mongol Era”