History of International Relations Textbook

The Americas


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The Chachapoya culture was located in the part of Peru where the highlands of the Andes meet the Amazonian jungles. There are jungles here 3,500 meters above sea level and many large navigable rivers. Chachapoya culture originally developed around 750 CE and there were major urban centers, like the great fortress of Kuelap, with remnants of hundreds of buildings and massive stone walls. Only some five percent of the archeological sites of the Chachapoya have been excavated. They were conquered by the Incas shortly before the arrival of the Europeans in the 1520s. Since they were treated harshly by the Incas, the Chachapoya sided with the European conquerors.

In the first scenes of the film Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones searches the booby-trapped ruins of a Chachapoyan temple for a golden idol.