- Classical patrimonial states and neopatrimonialism.
- Kleptocracies. Mbuto’s Zaire, Central African Republic, Gabon.
- The oil curse. Why are people in Nigeria and Venezuela so poor?
- Narco-states. Mexico and Venezuela as examples.
- Military regimes. “The military has always ruled Egypt.”
- Dawisha, Karen. Putin’s Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia? Simon & Schuster, 2014.
- Hirschfeld, Katherine. Gangster States: Organized Crime, Kleptocracy and Political Collapse. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
- Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud. “The Myth of the Narco-State.” Space and Polity 20, no. 1 (January 2, 2016): 26–38.
Managing oil wealth in Africa: